Showing posts with label Popular Spanish Grammar Topics. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Popular Spanish Grammar Topics. Show all posts

Spanish Transitional Words and Phrases

Spanish Transitional Words and Phrases


This lesson covers some Spanish transitional words and phrases. There are enough here that you might want to bookmark the page to refer back yo it several times until you remember most of these. Now, since we have had a few lessons, we continue the page introduction in Spanish...

Finalmente y ahora que ya puedes formular ideas en español, entonces estás listo para algunas Frases de Transición (Transition Phrases). Frases de Transición son aquellas frases que te ayudan a enlazar una idea con otra. A continuación te presento algunas :


Frases de Transición para agregar:

(Transitional Phrases to add an idea)


aparte de = besides

además = moreover; additionally

asimismo = also

de todas formas = in any case; anyhow

de todas maneras = in any case; anyhow

de todos modos = in any case; anyhow

de cualquier manera = in any case; anyhow

sobre todo = above all

también = also



Frases de Transición para comparar:

(Transitional Phrases to compare an idea with another)


así como = similarly

con relación a = in relation to

de la misma forma/manera = in the same way

del mismo modo = in the same way

en cuanto a = as for

sin duda = without a doubt

en relación con/a = in relation to

tal como = just like


Frases de Transición para contrastar:

(Transitional Phrases to contrast an idea)


a diferencia de = in contrast to

a pesar de (que) = in spite of; despite(the fact that)

al contrario = on the contrary

aunque = although; even though

con todo = nevertheless; still

en cambio = on the other hand

en contraste con = in contrast to

en lugar de = instead of

en vez de = instead of

no obstante = nevertheless; however

por el contrario = on the contrary

por un lado... por otro lado = on the one hand . . . on the other hand

por una/otra parte = on the one/other hand

sin embargo = nevertheless; however


Frases de Transición para ejemplificar:

(Transitional Phrases to make examples)


claro que = of course

en efecto = indeed; in fact

en realidad = indeed; in fact

en resumen = in short

es decir = that is to say

por ejemplo = for example

por lo general = in general

por supuesto = of course

por último = lastly


Frases de Transición para expresar resultado:

(Transitional Phrases to express conclusions)


en consecuencia = consequently

por consiguiente = consequently

por eso = therefore

por lo tanto = therefore

por lo visto = apparently

resulta que . . . = it turns out that . . .

ya que = since; because of


Frases de Transición relacionadas con el tiempo:

(Transitional Phrases related to time)


ahora = now

al mismo tiempo = at the same time

al principio = in the beginning

desde entonces = since then

después = afterwards; later

durante = during

entonces = then

finalmente = finally

luego = later; then

mientras = while


That covers the Spanish transitional words and phrases that you're most likely to need.

Spanish Prepositions List

Spanish Prepositions List

En esta lección vamos a estudiar algunas de las preposiciones más comunes del idioma Español.

 

a = to, at, by means of

Nosotros vamos a la escuela. (We are going to the school.)

Ellos llegaron a las 10:00. (They arrived at 10:00.)

Ustedes viajan a pie. (You travel by foot.)



antes de = before

Me gusta leer antes de dormirme. (I'd like to read before I go to sleep.)

Busco mi cartera antes de salir. (I look for my purse before I go out.)



bajo = under

Mi gato está bajo la cama. (My cat is under the bed.)

Los anteojos estan bajo los libros. (The glasses are under the books.)


cerca de = near

El carro está cerca del almacén. (The car is near the shop.)

Yo estoy cerca de la estación. (I am near the station.)


con = with

Ellos van al cine con sus amigos. (They go to the movies with their friends.)

Nosotros llegamos con suficiente tiempo. (We arrived with enough time to spare.)


contra = against (leaning)

en contra de = against (opposition)

La escoba está contra la pared. (The broom is againts the wall.)

Yo estoy en contra del abuso. (I am against abuse.)


 

de = of, from, indicating possession

La camiseta está hecha de algodón. (The t-shirt is made of cotton.)

Ella es de Australia. (She is from Australia.)

La computadora es de mi esposo. (The computer is my husband's.)



delante de = in front of

Estoy delante del hotel. (I am in front of the hotel.)

Delante del balcón está un edificio. (In front of the balcony is a building.)


 

dentro de / adentro de = in / inside

Las llaves están dentro de la caja. (The keys are inside the box.)

La comida está adentro de la nevera. (The food is inside the fridge.)


 

desde = since, from

No los he visto desde ayer. (I haven't seen them since yesterday.)

Usted puede llamar desde la habitación. (You could call from the room.)



después de = after

Vamos a bailar después de la cena. (We are going dancing after dinner.)

Después de viajar por Sudamerica regresamos a Europa. (After traveling around South America we will return to Europe.)



detrás de = behind

La estación de buses está detrás del hotel. (The bus station is behind the hotel.)

Vamos detrás de ustedes. (We are going behind you.)


durante = during

Nosotros dormimos durante el viaje. (We slept during the trip.)

Hace mucho frio durante el invierno. (It is cold during the winter.)


en = in, on

Ellos están en la ciudad. (They are in the city.)

Los pasaportes están en el escritorio. (The passports are on the desk.)


encima de = on top of

Mis gatos están encima del librero. (My cats are on top of the bookcase.)

La antena está encima del techo. (The antena is on top on the roof.)


enfrente de = in front of

El museo está en frente de la plaza. (The museum is in front of the square.)


entre = between, among

La maleta está entre el sofá y la cama. (The suitcase is between the sofa and the bed.)


afuera de = outside of

El guía está esperando afuera del hostal. (The guide is waiting outside the hostel.)


hacia = toward

Yo caminé hacia la salida. (I walked toward the exit.)


hasta = until

Los turistas no llegan hasta las seis. (The tourists don't arrive until six.)


para = for / for the purpose of / for the benefit of / directed to
/ in the direction / in order to

Los mapas son para los mochileros. (The maps are for the backpackers.)

Nosotros vamos para las montañas. (We are heading to the mountains.)

Estudian los mapas para conocer las rutas. (They study the maps in order to know the rutes.)


por = for / by / in favor of / means of transportation

Gracias por el almuerzo. (Thank you for the lunch.)

El libro fue escrito por un experto. (The book was written by an expert.)

Viajamos por tren. (We traveled by train.)


según = according to

Según las noticias hoy va a llover. ( According to the news today it is going to rain.)


sin = without

Ella salió sin el paraguas. (She left without the umbrella.)


sobre = over, about

Dejó los documentos sobre la mesa. (He left the documents over the table.)

Es un libro sobre historias de viajeros. (It's a book about traveler's stories.)


tras = after, behind

Los patos caminan uno tras otro. (The ducks walk one after (behind) the other.)


 

Some Useful Idioms

Entre la espada y la pared. = Between the sword and the wall (between a rock and a hard place).

Contra viento y marea. = Against all odds.

Por aquí y por allá. = Around here and around there.

¡Hasta nunca! = See you never!

¡Hasta la vista! = Until I see you again!

Adverbs Of Time in Spanish

Spanish Lesson: Adverbs Of Time

En esta lección de español vamos a estudiar algunos adverbios de tiempo. (In this Spanish lesson we are going to study some adverbs of time.)


Vamos a ver:


Ahora

(Now)


Examples:


Ahora vamos a la escuela. (Now we are going to the school.)

Ahora es nuestra oportunidad. (Now is our opportunity.)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ayer

(Yesterday)


Ejemplos:


Ayer recibimos los libros. (Yesterday we got the books.)

Ayer tomamos las lecciones de español. (Yesterday we took the Spanish lessons.)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Anteayer / antes de ayer

(The day before yesterday.)


Ejemplos:


Anteayer estudiamos español. (The day before yesterday we studied Spanish.)

Antes de ayer estudiamos español. (The day before yesterday we studied Spanish.)


Note: In Spanish we say "anteayer" or "antes de ayer", but never "antesdeayer".


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


Hoy

(Today)


Ejemplos:


Hoy estamos preparados para la prueba de español. (Today we are prepared for the spanish test.)

Hoy quiero comprar un diccionario de verbos en español. (Today I want to buy a dictionary of verbs in Spanish.)


 


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Mañana

(Tomorrow)


Ejemplos:


Mañana viajaremos a Cuba . (Tomorrow we are going to Cuba.)

Mañana no podremos llegar a tiempo. (Tomorrow we cannot arrive on time.)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Antes

(Before)


Ejemplos:


Es mejor pensar bien antes de actuar. (It is better to think well before acting.)

Estuve antes en Brazil. (I was in Brazil before.)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Después

(After, afterwards)


Ejemplos:


Después decidiremos que hacer . (After, we will decide what to do.)

Voy a pasar después por la oficina. (I am going to pass by the office afterwards.)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Mientras

(While)


Ejemplos:


Voy a leer mientras espero el bus. (I'm going to read while I wait for the bus.)

Mientras esperamos la comida podemos hablar de negocios. (While we wait for the food we can talk about business.)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Nunca

(never)


Ejemplos:


Nunca voy a olvidar estas vacaciones. (I'm never going to forget this vacation.)

Ellos nunca llamaron. (They never call.)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Siempre

(Always)


Ejemplos:


Casi siempre vamos a comprar en esa tienda . (Almost always we go to buy in that store.)

Ellos siempre llegan tarde. (They always arrive late.)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 

Spanish Idioms

¿En serio? (Are you serious?)

¿De veras? (Are you sure?)

¿Quién lo diría? (Who would have known?)

No es posible (It's not posible)

Y desde cuándo (Since then)

¿Estás segura / seguro? (Are you sure?)

Decídete pronto (Decide soon)

Estoy esperando (I'm waiting)

Apúrate (Hurry up)

No seas lento (Don't be slow)

Nunca es tarde (It's never too late)


 


 


 



 

Adverbs of Mode in Spanish

                     Spanish Lesson: Adverbs Of Mode


Hola, ¿cómo están?...


En esta lección de español vamos a estudiar algunos adverbios de modo. (In this Spanish lesson we are going to study some adverbs of mode.)

Disfruten ! (Enjoy)


Así

(Like this or that, this way, that way)


Examples:

Así me gusta el café: negro y caliente. (I like the coffee like this: black and hot.)

No me hables así. (Don't talk to me that way.)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


Bien

(well, right)


Ejemplos:

Ella toca bien la flauta. (She plays flute well.)

Hiciste bien en protestar. (You did right in protesting.)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 

Mal

(badly, wrong)


Ejemplos:

Ella hizo todo mal. (She did everything badly.)

Después de todo, me siento muy mal. (After all I feel very wrong.)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


Casi

(almost, nearly)


Ejemplos:

Casi compro ese carro. (I nearly bought that car.)

Casi mil personas asistieron al concierto. (Almost one thousand people attended the concert.)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


Mejor

(better, best)


Ejemplos:

En este hotel estamos mejor atendidos . (In this hotel we are better served.)

El juega mejor que todos. (He is the best player of all.)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Peor

(Worse, worst)


Ejemplos:

Con estos lentes veo peor que antes. (With these glasses I see worse than before.)

Esta es la peor hamburguesa que he comido en mi vida. (This is the worst burger I've ever eaten in my life)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 

Según

(As, according to)


Ejemplos:

Según íbamos llegando nos asignaron los asientos. (As we were arriving they assigned us the seats.)

Voy a cocinar el pollo según dice la receta . (I am going to cook the chicken according to the recipe.)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 

Spanish Idioms

Mal de ojo (evil eye)

lo mejor de todo (the best of all)

lo peor de todo (the worst of all)

según dicen (as they say)

las malas lenguas (those who gossip)

de mal en peor (from bad to worst)

así así (so so)

gente de bien (good people)

bien hecho (well done) Ejemplo: Este trabajo está bien hecho. (This job is very well done.)

bien hecho (you deserve it) Ejemplo: Bien hecho por malcriado. (You deserve it for being a brat.)

mal hecho (badly done)


 

Adverbs of Place in Spanish

Adverbs of Place in Spanish

En esta lección de español vamos a estudiar algunos adverbios de lugar. (In this Spanish lesson we are going to study some adverbs of place.)


Vamos a ver:


Aquí / Acá

(Here, near the person speaking.)


Examples:

Aquí están los libros. (Here are the books.)

Acá están los libros. (Here are the books.)


Aquí vive mi profesor. (Here lives my teacher.)

Acá vive mi profesor. (Here lives my teacher.)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ahí

(There, at some distance but not far from the person speaking.)


Examples:

Ahí esta el dinero. (There is the money.)

Ahí tienes las lecciones. (There you have the lessons.)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Allí / Allá

(There, over there, at some distance or far from the person speaking.)


Examples:

Allí estudiamos español. (There / over there we study Spanish.)

Allá estudiamos español. (There / over there we study Spanish.)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Note 1: In conversational Spanish "Allí" is sometimes closer than "allá".


Example:

Allí está mi casa. (There is my house.)

Allá está el parque. (Over there is the park.)


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Note 2: We Spanish speakers often used ahí , allí and allá indiscriminately.


Example:

Ahí está el diccionario. (There / over there is the dictionary.)

Allí está el diccionario. (There / over there is the dictionary.)

Allá está el diccionario. (There / over there is the dictionary.)



Spanish Idioms

Aquí mismo (right here)

Allí / allá arriba (up there)

Allí / allá abajo (down there)

Por allí / por allá (around there)

Por aquí / por acá (around here)

Más allá de ... (outside or beyond)

Muy allá (far away)

No tan allá (not so far)

No tan acá (not so close)

Vamos allá (let's go there)

De acá para allá (from here to there)

Alla tú (that's your problem)

Allá por la época de .... (around the time of....)

El más allá (the outer limits)

Sin ir más allá (without going further)


 

The Gerund and The Present Progressive in Spanish

The Gerund and The Present Progressive

 

El Gerundio en Español

(The Gerund in Spanish)

 

The Gerund (gerundio) is a form of the verb that ends in -ando (for the infinitives ending in ar) or -iendo (for the infinitives ending in er and ir).


A better explanation:


Hablar (to speak)

First take away the ar ending of hablar and then add the new ending ando, so you'll have hablando (speaking). This is the gerund of hablar.


Comer (to eat)

First take away the er ending of comer and then add the new ending iendo, so you'll have comiendo (eating). This is the gerund of comer.


Vivir (to live)

First take away the ir ending of vivir and then add the new ending iendo, so you'll have viviendo (living). This is the gerund of vivir.


As you can see, the English counterpart of this form is translated as the “-ing” form of the verb.


****************

 

Present Progressive

Now that we understand the Gerund we are going to put it in context using the verb Estar (to be). This combination of Estar + Gerund it is called :Present Progressive and allows us to describe an action that is taking place at the moment.


Note: Many books refered to the Gerund as Present Participle.


Vamos a ver: (Let's see)


Comprar ---- comprando

Yo estoy comprando libros. (I am buying books.)


Estudiar---- estudiando

Tú estás estudiando español. (You are studying Spanish.)


Bailar---- bailando

El está bailando salsa. (He is dancing salsa.)


Comer ---- comiendo

Ella está comiendo frijoles con arroz. (She is eating beans with rice.)


Escribir---- escribiendo

Nosotros estamos escribiendo una carta. (We are writing a letter.)


Jugar---- jugando

Ellos están jugando en el parque. (They are playing in the park.)



Some exceptions:


leer (to read)----leyendo

dormir (to sleep)----durmiendo

sentir (to feel)----sintiendo

pedir (to ask for)----pidiendo


Note: Notice the gerund changes the root in these exceptions.


****************

 

Spanish Idioms

 Estoy mirando la tele. (I am watching tv.)

Estoy buscando esta dirección... (I am looking for this address...)

Estoy esperando el bus. (I am waiting for the bus.)

Estoy pensando en una solución. (I am thinking of a solution.)

Estoy escuchando la radio. (I am listening to the radio.)

Me estoy preguntando....(I am wondering....)


 

What Does Hay Mean in Spanish?

 

hay in Spanish

Hola Otra vez

(Hello Again)

 

Today is time to study "Hay", this is a verb form that expresses the idea of existence. When you use it with singular nouns it means there is, and when it is used with plural nouns it means there are .


 Hay (there is, there are)


- ¿Qué hay en la oficina? (What is there in the office?)

- Hay un escritorio y una computadora. (There is a desk and a computer.)


- ¿Qué hay en la caja? (What is there in the box?)

- Hay un dólar. (There is a dollar.)


- ¿Qué hay en su maleta? (What is there in your suitcase?)

- Hay solo ropa (There are only clothes.)


..............................

- ¿Cuántos estudiantes de español hay en la clase? (How many Spanish students are there in the class?)

- Hay doce estudiantes de español. (There are twelve Spanish students.)


- ¿Cuántos mochileros hay en el hotel? (How many backpackers are there in the hotel?)

- Hay diez mochileros. (There are ten backpackers.)


- ¿Cuántos turistas hay en el barco? (How many tourists are there in the boat?)

- Hay cinco turistas en el barco. (There are five tourists in the boat.)


- ¿Cuántas manzanas hay en el refrigerador? (How many apples are there in the refrigerator?)

- Hay tres manzanas. (There are tree apples.)


- ¿Qué hay en su maleta? (What is there in your suitcase?)

- Hay solo ropa (There are only clothes.)


..............................

- ¿Hay azúcar? (There is sugar?)

- Sí hay. (Yes, there is.)


- ¿Hay suficiente jugo de naranja? (There is enough orange juice?)

- No, no hay suficiente. (No, there is not enough.)


- ¿Hay suficiente pan? (There is enough bread?)

- Sí, hay suficiente pan. (Yes, there is enough bread.)


..............................

 

Spanish Idioms

Hay mucho ruido en este lugar. (There is a lot of noise in this place.)

Hay mucha basura en esta casa. (There is a lot of garbage in this house.)

No hay más dinero. (There is no more money.)

No hay más comida. (There is no more food.)

No me moleste. (Don't bother me.)

No me persiga. (Don't follow me.)

No me pregunte. (Don't ask me.)

No entiendo nada. (I don't understand anything.)

Estoy tan confundido / confundida. (I am so confused.)

Es solo una broma / chiste. (It is only a joke.)

Spanish Expressions with "Gustaría"


Spanish Expressions with "Gustaría"

Buenos días o buenas tardes o buenas noches (good morning or good afternoon or good night). ¿Cómo están ustedes?... (How are you all). Today we are going to study "Gustaría" which means "would like", a handy expression to know.


Let's see (Veamos):


Me gustaría

Te gustaría

Le gustaría

Nos gustaría

Les gustaría I would like

You would like

He, She, You (formal) would like

We would like

They, You (plural) would like


Do you remember gustar from last lesson? Well Gustaría is a form of gustar, therefore we used it with the indirect object pronouns (me, te, le, nos, les).

Sometimes we used gustar with a prepositional phrase just to make it clear of whom we are talking about. We Spanish speakers very often use phrases with a (to), such as a Pedro (to Pedro) 

Example:

A Pedro le gusta estudiar español (To Pedro he likes to study Spanish, or Pedro likes to study Spanish).

A Pedro le gustaría estudiar español (To Pedro he would like to study Spanish, or Pedro would like to study Spanish).

A María le gusta la lección de español (To Maria She likes the Spanish lesson, or Maria likes the Spanish lesson).

A María le gustaría una lección de español (To Maria She would like a Spanish lesson, or Maria would like a Spanish lesson).


Note: This probably does not make much sense in English but that is how we say it in Spanish. Remember languages are not logical.

....................

Ahora vamos a repetir estas frases en voz alta (Now let's repeat these phrases aloud):


Me gustaría visitar un país hispano (I would like to visit a Hispanic country).

Te gustaría viajar a lugares remotos (You would like to travel to remote places).

A Juan le gustaría aprender más vocabulario (Juan would like to learn more vocabulary).

A Elena le gustaría caminar en el centro de la ciudad (Elena would like to walk downtown).

Nos gustaría aprender español en el extranjero (We would like to learn Spanish overseas).

A los estudiantes les gustaría escuchar musica latina (The students would like to listen to Latin music).

....................

 
Spanish Idioms


¡Qué calor! = How hot- more literally 'what heat!'

¡Qué feo! =How ugly!

¡Qué ridículo! =How ridiculous!

¡Qué malcriado! W=hat a brat!

El burro hablando de orejas =The donkey speaking about ears/The tea pot calling the kettle black

No hay mal que por bien no venga =There is nothing bad from which good doesn't come

No todo lo que brilla es oro = Not all/everything that shines/glitters is gold


Note: Spanish uses 2 exclamation marks, one upside down to open a sentence, and one regular one to finish it.

Useful Spanish Expressions


Useful Spanish Expressions


¡Hola mis amigos!

The verbs deber (should or ought to), necesitar (to need), and the impersonal expressions hay que (one must) and es necesario (it is necessary) are very useful for forming quick expressions when speaking in Spanish. Here are some examples:


Deber (should, ought to)


Yo debo escribir las lecciones. (I should write the lessons.)

Tú debes leer las expresiones. (You should read the expressions.)

El debe estudiar español. (He should study Spanish.)

Nosotros debemos practicar diariamente. (We should practice daily.)

Ellos deben trabajar más. (They should work more.)


Necesitar (to need)


Yo necesito hablar en español. (I need to speak Spanish.)

Tú necesitas aprender los verbos. (You need to learn the verbs.)

Ella necesita comprar un diccionario. (She needs to buy a dictionary.)

Nosotros necesitamos aprender otro idioma. (We need to learn another language.)


Hay que (one must)


Hay que llegar a tiempo. (One must arrive on time.)

Hay que hacer la tarea. (One must do the homework.)

Hay que limpiar la casa. (One must clean the house.)


Es Necesario (it is necessary)


Es necesario comer todos los dias. (It is necessary eat every day.)

Es necesario caminar frecuentemente. (It is necessary to walk frequently.)

No es necesario bailar cada noche. (It is not necessary to dance every night.)


Note: Did you notice that these verbs are always followed by infinitives?


Spanish Idioms
 

Es cierto (it's true)

No es cierto (it is not true)

Muy bien (very well)

Un poco de (a little bit of)

Nada de (nothing of)

A veces (sometimes)

Más o menos (more or less, so so)

Casi nunca (almost never)

Expressing Possession in Spanish


Expressing Possession in Spanish

 

Hola mis estudiantes de Español

(Hello my Spanish students)

¿Listos? (Ready?)

The easiest way to express possession in Spanish is by using the verb "tener" (to have) - we know this right?:

yo tengo, tú tienes, él tiene, usted tiene, nosotros tenemos, ellos tienen.


Examples:

Yo tengo una escuela de español. (I have a Spanish school.)

Tú tienes una lección de español. (You have a Spanish lesson.)

El tiene un disco en español. (He has a Spanish CD.)


~~~~~~~~~

 

Another easy way to express possession in Spanish is using the preposition "de" (of) as an equivalent of the English 's. Example:

El cuaderno de Juan. (Juan's notebook.)

La computadora de Carlos. (Carlos' computer.)

La casa de Ana. (Ana's house)

Los libros de Susana. (Susana's books.)

El dormitorio de los niños. (The kid's room.)


Note: We never use apostrophe and s to express possession.

~~~~~~~~~

 

The other way to express possession is with the questions "¿de quién es?" (whose is this) or "¿de quién son?" (whose are these), Below you can see what I am meaning:


- ¿De quién es este libro? (Whose book is this?)

- Este libro es de María. (This is Maria's book, or This book belongs to Maria.)


- ¿De quién son estos libros? (Whose books are these?)

- Estos libros son de María. (These are Maria's books or These books belong to Maria)


Note: The verb ser (to be) followed by the preposition de (of) is used to express possession.


 ¿De quién es? (singular form)= Whose is this?

¿De quién son? (plural form)= Whose are these?

 

Do you understand now?...When we want to know to whom a thing or things belong to, we ask: "¿De quién es?" , or "¿De quién son?", The correct answer is "es de" or "son de".


- ¿De quién es el disco en español? (Whose Spanish CD is this?)

- El disco en español es de Steven. (It is Steven's Spanish CD, or The Spanish CD belongs to Steven.)


- ¿De quién son los discos en español? (Whose Spanish CDs are these?)

- Los discos en español son de Steven. (These are Steven's Spanish CDs, or These Spanish CDs belong to Steven.)


Note: We never use apostrophe and s to express possession (Steve's CDs).

~~~~~~~~~ 

Another way to express possession is using the possessive adjectives. Let's see:

 

SINGULAR POSSESSION


Mi (my)

ex: Mi diccionario es grande. (My dictionary is big.)


Tu (your)

ex: Tu lección es interesante. (Your lesson is interesting.)


Su (your, formal)

ex: Su pastel esta delicioso. (Your cake is delicious.)


Su (his,her)

ex: Su bebe es hermoso. (Her baby is beautiful.)


Nuestro, nuestra (our)

ex: Nuestro niño esta en la escuela de español / Nuestra niña esta en la escuela de español (Our boy is in the Spanish school. / Our girl is in the Spanish school.)


Su (your, plural)

ex: Su equipo es muy bueno. (Your team is very good.)


Su (their)

ex: Su caballo es muy caro. (Their horse is very expensive.)


 

PLURAL POSSESSION


Mis (my)

ex: Mis diccionarios son grandes. (My dictionaries are big.)


Tus (your)

ex: Tus lecciones son interesantes. (Your lessons are interesting.)


Sus (your, formal)

ex: Sus pasteles estan deliciosos. (Your cakes are delicious.)


Sus (his,her)

ex: Sus bebes son hermosos . (His babies are beautiful.)


Nuestros, nuestras (our)

ex: Nuestros niños estan en la escuela de español / Nuestras niñas estan en la escuela de español (Our boys are in the Spanish school. / Our girls are in the Spanish school.)


Sus (your, plural)

ex: Sus equipos son muy buenos. (Your teams are very good.)


Su (their)

ex: Sus caballos son muy caros. (Their horses are very expensive.)


Note 1: The possessive adjective, like other Spanish adjectives, needs to agree in number and gender with the noun it describes. In other words, it has to agree with the object owned.


Note 2: Tú with and accent mark corresponds to you but tu without an accent mark corresponds to your.

Demonstrative Adjectives in Spanish

Demonstrative Adjectives in Spanish

Well, now that we have covered Past, Present and Future Tenses in Spanish we are ready for some easy and fun stuff. My theory always has been that you need first to understand these three basic tenses so you could communicate sooner and then learn some other useful things that we left behind.

Today we are going to study The Demonstrative Adjectives which are used to point out people and objects. It is important to remember that a demonstrative adjective has to agree in gender and number with the noun it modifies.


¡Listos! (Ready!)


The Demonstrative Adjectives in Spanish

(Los Adjetivos Demostrativos en Español)

 


Este (This, masculine and singular)

este libro (this book)

este pueblo (this town)

este hombre (this man)


Esta (This, feminine and singular)

esta casa (this house)

esta ciudad (this city)

esta mujer (this woman)


Estos (These, masculine and plural)

estos libros (these books)

estos pueblos (these towns)

estos hombres (these men)


Estas (These, feminine and plural)

estas casas (these houses)

estas ciudades (these houses)

estas mujeres (these women)


Note:

Tú estás (you are) carries an accent.

Estas (these, feminine) doesn't carry an accent.

Él está (He is) carries an accent.

Esta (this) doesn't carry an accent.

...............................


Ese (That, masculine and singular)

ese niño (that boy)

ese camino (that road)

ese carro (that car)


Esa (That, feminine and singular)

esa mesa (that table)

esa calle (that street)

esa señora (that lady)


Esos (Those, masculine and plural)

esos niños (those boys, those kids)

esos caminos (those roads)

esos carros (those cars)


Esas (Those, feminine and plural)

esas mesas (those tables)

esas calles (those streets)

esas señoras (those ladies)

..........................



Esto (This, unidentified object near to the speakers)

- María, ¿qué es esto? (María, what is this?)

- Lo siento, pero no sé. (I am sorry, but I don't know.)


Eso (That, unidentified object far from the speakers)

- José, ¿sabes que es eso? (José, do you know what that is?)

- No, no sé. Eso parece un animal, pero no estoy seguro. (No, I don't know. That seems an animal but I am not sure.)

.........................


There are some demonstrative adjectives that indicate that the person or thing pointed out it is more distant, usually far away in space or time.


Aquel (that, masculine and singular)

Yo recuerdo aquel juguete. (I remember that toy.)


Aquella (that, feminine and singular)

Nadie vive en aquella casa vieja. (Nobody lives in that old house.)


Aquellos (those, masculine and plural)

Aquellos años fueron muy hermosos. (Those years were very beautiful.)


Aquellas (those, feminine and plural)

¿Puedes ver aquellas montañas? (Can you see those mountains?)



Spanish Idioms

Otra vez (again)

¡ Que desagradable ! (how unpleasant)

Estoy Listo (I am ready)

La misma cosa otra vez (the same thing again)

¡ Estoy decepcionado ! (I am dissaponted !)

¡ Estoy contenta ! (I am content !)

No esperaba esto (I did not expect this)

¡ Que divertido ! (How fun !)

Aquí estoy (Here I am)

Allá voy (I am going there)

Articles, Nouns, Adjectives in Spanish

Spanish Definite and Indefinite Articles


Articles, Nouns, Adjectives in Spanish


   

The Articles

The definite article: English has only one definite article: "The" In Spanish the definite articles are: el, la, los, las:


 el carro (the car)

 la casa (the house)

 los carros (the cars)

 las casas (the houses)


"El" is used with masculine singular nouns; "la" is used with feminine singular nouns; "los" is used with masculine plural nouns; and "las" is used with feminine plural nouns.


Note:

You can tell the difference between "el" (article "the") and "él" (personal pronoun "he") because the second has an accent.


The indefinite article : In English the indefinite article is "a" or "an." Its Spanish counterparts are: "un" (masculine nouns) and "una" (feminine nouns):


 un árbol (a tree)

 una mesa (a table)


The Nouns

In Spanish - unlike English - each noun is either masculine or feminine. Almost all nouns that end in o are masculine and the ones that end in a are feminine. (But, notice that I said almost). In order to form the plural of nouns ending in o or a, an s is added.


Example:

 el niño (the boy) los niños (the boys)

 la niña (the girl) las niñas (the girls)

 

Nouns ending in dad, tad, tud, umbre, ción, sión are feminine. The plural is formed by adding "es" to nouns ending in a consonant, and "s" to those ending in a vowel.


Example:

 la ciudad (the city) las ciudades (the cities)

 la facultad (the faculty) las facultades (the faculties)

 la actitud (the attitude) las actitudes (the attitudes)

 la legumbre (the vegetable) las legumbres (the vegetables)

 la nación (the nation) las naciones (the nations)

 la televisión (the television) las televisiones (the televisions)


There are some nouns that are masculine but end in "a." To form the plural we have to add "s" (Don't forget that the article "el" goes with masculine singular nouns and the article "los" goes with masculine plural nouns, so the plural of el mapa is los mapas.)


Example:

 el mapa (the map) el día (the day)

 el clima (the climate) el tema (the theme)

 el sistema (the system) el programa (the program)

 el telegrama (the telegram) el drama (the drama)

 el poema (the poem) el planeta (the planet)


Nouns ending in "e" tend to be masculine. To form the plural of nouns ending in "e" an "s" is added. (Don't forget that the article: "el" goes with masculine singular nouns and the article "los" goes with masculine plural nouns, so the plural of el parque is los parques.)


 el parque (the park) el cine (the movie theater)

 el carro (the car) el café (the cafe)

 el viaje (the trip) el bosque (the forest)

 el aire (the air) el puente (the bridge)

 el arte (the art) el nombre (the name)


Here is a list of very common nouns that end in e but happen to be feminine:


 la calle (the street) la clase (the class)

 la leche (the milk) la llave (the key)

 la noche (the night) la gente (the people)

 la tarde (the afternoon) la nube (the cloud)


The Adjectives

First of all, Spanish adjectives have a different placement in the sentence than English adjectives: In English, it's The pretty house , whereas in Spanish, it's The house pretty = La casa bonita. In Spanish the noun comes before the adjective.


The Spanish adjectives must agree in gender and number with the nouns that they modify. This means that if the noun is feminine and singular the adjective has to be feminine and singular too. If the noun is feminine and plural the adjective has to be feminine and plural.


Example:

La mesa vieja (the old table)

Las mesas viejas (the old tables)


The same is true of masculine nouns. If the noun is masculine and singular the adjective has to be masculine and singular too. If the noun is masculine and plural the adjective has to be masculine and plural.


Example:

El carro sucio (the dirty car)

Los carros sucios (the dirty cars)


Most frequently used Spanish adjectives end in o (masculine) or a (feminine), according to the noun they modify.


Example:

alto, alta (tall)

ancho, ancha (wide)

amarillo, amarilla (yellow)

barato, barata (cheap)

blanco, blanca (white)

bonito, bonita (pretty)

bueno, buena (good)

caro, cara (expensive)

cómodo, cómoda (comfortable)

corto, corta (short)

delgado, delgada (thin)

duro, dura (hard)

estrecho, estrecha (narrow)

extranjero, extranjera (foreign)

feo, fea (ugly)

frío, fría (cold)

gordo, gorda (fat)

hermoso, hermosa (beautiful)

largo, larga (long)

limpio, limpia (clean)

loco, loca (crazy)

malo, mala (bad)

negro, negra (black)

rico, rica (rich)

sucio, sucia (dirty)

viejo, vieja (old)


However, there are many adjectives that end in e and some that end in consonants. These are called neutral adjectives, because they don't change form with masculine or feminine nouns. To form their plurals you need to add an s to the ones ending in e and es to the ones ending in a consonant.


Examples:

elegante (elegant)

excelente (excellent)

fuerte (strong)

grande (big)

humilde (humble)

importante (important)

inteligente (intelligent)

interesante (interesting)

pobre (poor)

triste (sad)

verde (green)


Spanish adjectives ending with consonants:

popular (popular)

azul (blue)

fácil (easy)

feliz (happy)

gris (gray)


Note: There are many rules about adjectives and many exceptions to those rules. The above is the most general and easiest approach to Spanish adjectives. You can learn more in the future, but if you learn the lesson here well, you'll rarely have problems.


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